Pneumatic tires and large volume rubber had been in use for almost a century when in the late 70’s a strong lightweight frame with adequate brakes and gears turned an average balloon bike– a klunker capable of country lanes– into a performance machine capable of climbing and descending off-pavement. These were all-terrain bikes, later dubbed “mountain bikes”. As sales of fat tires grew in the 80’s, bicycling magazines published forward-thinking expeditions to Everest Base Camp on Specialized Stumpjumpers, out the abandoned Canol Road on Ritchey frames in the Northwest Territory of Canada, and along the flanks and spines of local mountains everywhere. Never before had bikes been able to ride these routes and riders were willing to dream new places to ride; as well, riders quickly found the limits of the new bikes. The Canol Road, for example, is unrideable for much of the distance due to washouts, overgrowth and avalanche– and thus, the term hike-a-bike was born. Still, prices for these new machines fell and consumers bought up “mountain bikes” by the millions, finding varied uses. Many bikes became daily commuters on urban streets, cycletourists found larger tires and strong frames to be ideal for long distance travel on unknown roads, and some riders actually rode singletrack trails as pictured in magazines. But many (or most) mountain bikes, like Jeeps and Ford Explorers, spend very little time in the Tolkein environment pictured in sales catalogs and magazines. Consumers buy mountain bikes because they promise the ability to go places, simply because they can— it’s the promise of fat tires.
Winter endurance racing and sand-crawling cyclists birthed fatbikes over the past twenty years, and out of a slow stew of development the Surly Pugsley was born in 2006 as a mass-market option. The purple Pugsley that I ride is the analogue of the 1981 Stumpjumper, a ready-made option to those curious about riding large-volume rubber. In 2011, Salsa introduced a complete Mukluk build and Surly followed suit with a complete Pugsley— 2011-2012 has seen the explosion of fat tires as a result. Being able to enter a shop, point at a bike and ride out the door is a boon to sales and to curious consumers. A dismal snowfall in the lower 48 has done nothing to lessen interest in fatbikes this past winter, as curious and creative riders are finding new ways to ride big rubber. That’s the promise of fat tires– new places to ride, and new ways to ride. It’s more than just a snow bike.
Over the past few months I’ve explored the capacity of my Pugsley in reverse, finding that it can ride pavement and the graded dirt roads of the Great Divide and the Top of the World Highway on 2.35″ Schwalbe Big Apple tires. I refit “ultralight” 120 tpi Surly Larry tires to the 65mm Marge Lite rims a few weeks ago and have been riding the varied terrain of the Great Divide Route through Montana, Idaho, Wyoming and Colorado. Skeptical onlookers point out that I’m still not putting fat tires to full use– much of what I’ve ridden can be ridden on a normal mountain bike– but the sandy soils of the Western Idaho Trail and the intermittent washboard of the Divide are minimized under large-volume rubber. There are more instances where I am happy to have big tires than I curse the disadvantages– there’s more to gain than to lose.
We’re easily convinced that 29″ tires make obstacles “smaller” (despite statistically significant evidence to prove their efficiency), but many riders are calling fat tires a fad, and even worse, sacrilege. Admitting the obvious penalties of weight and rolling resistance on pavement, fat tires improve upon all three features of the pneumatic tire: traction, suspension and flotation. If you don’t need it, you don’t need it; but if you are curious and can dream up new ways to ride then it’s available through your local bike shop. It’s 1984 all over again, and in addition to the refined custom options, Surlys and Salsas are filling the floors of shops all over the country like Stumpjumpers and High Sierras. With the assurance and insurance of big rubber, I can plan a trip of unknown routes through the mountains and deserts of Colorado, Utah and Arizona. I’ve passed-by and turned away from enough rough-stuff riding opportunities in the past to know that I need a bike with some teeth. With new riding opportunities ahead I can point and shoot without limits, as my fatbike has teeth.
The direct comparison of fatbikes to “normal” bikes is often unfair. First, the riding conditions in which they are compared is necessarily biased towards a typical mountain bike, unless you’d previously included a lot of loose sandy hike-a-bike in your rides, snowy commutes, muddy trails or deeply rutted roads. Secondly, comparing bike weights of a refined mountain bike to a base model fatbike is also unfair, even at the same price point. Comparing bikes based on cost benefits the mass market offerings with “normal” 26″ and 29″ wheels; much of the additional cost and weight of a fatbike comes from specialized componentry, mainly rims and tires, which are expensive due to limited production. Rim weights have been cut in half in the last half-decade of fatbike development and the new Surly Marge Lite rim is only 690g (the 50mm Jeff Jones rim is 660g), both of which approach the weight of standard-duty XC rims. The weight and price of fatbike equipment is only coming down. Within the year, I suspect the Surly Pugsley will lose the 1150g DH Large Marge rim from the stock build; another tire manufacturer will enter the game, undercutting the weight of Innova tires and reducing rolling resistance with more advanced casings; and non-utilitarian offerings such as the new Salsa Beargrease (28.5 lb XC and race-oriented model) will change the way we think about these modern day klunkers. A studded fat tire, no matter the price, will be a panacea for dedicated winter commuters in Alaska and other consistently wintry climes, where a single commute can include fresh snow over hardpack, glare ice and icy rutted lanes.
Looking ahead even further, the leap to 3.7-4.5″ tires has left a huge gap, and the Surly Krampus arrives soon to fill it. Large volume tires in more practical everyday sizes and weights will continue to roll in, as will the frames that can handle them. Expect to see more lightweight (non-DH) 2.5-3.5″ tires in the future. The Krampus is betting on a lightweight 3.0″ tire on a 50mm-wide 29″ (622mm) rim, and I’m all in.
In Kremmling, CO a local raft guide rides a new Surly Pugsley with 45North Husker Du tires. He’s owned full-suspension mountain bikes in the past, but never enjoyed rebuilding suspension parts and linkages after a season of hard use. On a whim, he hopped on a fatbike. Of course, he bought it! He’s devoted several upcoming months between the rafting season and the ski season to play, and his first-ever cycling trip will be on a the new white Pugsley somewhere in the west. I’ve lent my Great Divide maps and assorted state highway maps, which I’m hopeful will get some use.
On another note, my Schwalbe Big Apples tires have made their way to Anchorage via USPS where they have again found a home on the Surly Man’s Big Donkey. A modern proverb states, “it takes more than one man to wear through a Schwalbe”. Below, mountainous snowbanks persist though late March in Anchorage, conquered only by the mighty Mukluks. The snowbanks would not disappear until sometime in May.
The “promise of fat tires” was realized late at night as an indirect rebuttal to a recent article on Mike Varley’s Black Mountain Cycles blog. A favorite cycle-centric digest, Mike reflects expertly on old bikes, new technology and practical tire sizes. Check out the BMC Cross frame, which features the largest tire clearance of any non-suspension corrected steel 700c/29″ bike available. With a fast-rolling 1.9-2.1″ tire, this frame would make a real dirt road scorcher!